Anchor ice is defined by the World Meteorological Organization as "submerged ice attached or anchored to the bottom, irrespective of the nature of its formation." It may also be called bottom-fast ice.[1]Anchor ice is most commonly observed in fast-flowing rivers during periods of extreme cold, at the mouths of rivers flowing into very cold seawater, in the shallow sub or intertidal during or after storms when the air temperature is below the freezing point of the water, and the subtidal in the Antarctic along ice shelves or near floating glacier tongues, and in shallow lakes.


Biological EffectsEdit

Anchor Ice can be dangerous, they can act like glue to animals. When the ice looses it's grip on the bottom, it will float to the surface or beneath an ice shelf, those pieces with animals stuck to them will be carried up too and can die(see "Frozen Planet"). Especially in the Antarctic, anchor ice has been implicated in drastic zonation of the subtidal fauna. Many animals are directly affected by the growth of anchor ice, and certain sponges have been shown to readily grow anchor ice and to be damaged by it. Anchor ice may also grow on animate or inanimate objects and lift them from the sea floor. In the Antarctic this will most likely result in the death of an organism, since during much of the year the ocean is covered by annual sea ice, and the organism is likely to become incorporated into this.


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